Find out more: Chapter 3. Looking at the burden of disease is one way to measure the impact of different diseases or injuries on a population. This is done by measuring how many years of life Australia loses to diseases, either due to people dying early, or living their remaining years affected by ill health. Coronary heart disease is the leading contributor to the total disease burden in Australia for all ages combined, followed by lung cancer for males, and arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions such as back pain and osteoporosis for females.
Chronic conditions are also leading contributors to the disease burden in Australia. The leading contributors to the disease burden differ across age groups, reflecting that people experience different health problems at different life stages.
Number 10: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Disease burden also differs between males and females across the life stages. Burden of disease focuses on health loss due to disease and injury. It does not account for other broader factors influencing health, such as the social and economic impacts of ill health. Chronic conditions are generally long lasting, require ongoing management and have a substantial effect on individuals, their families and carers, and the health system.
Males and older people experience the highest rate of chronic condition hospitalisations and deaths, although the difference between males and females is decreasing over time. The three chronic conditions that contribute most to the disease burden in Australia are cancer, coronary heart disease and mental illness. People with chronic conditions are generally less likely than other Australians to be employed, and are generally more likely to have disability and experience psychological distress, body pain and poor health.
While the number of cancer cases has been rising in Australia, the rate of people being diagnosed with cancer has been falling since Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer for females, and prostate cancer for males.
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However, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for males and females. Relative survival measures the average survival experience of people with cancer compared with people of the same age and sex in the general population. However, this is not the story for all cancers. Mesothelioma—an aggressive form of cancer caused mainly by exposure to asbestos—has no known cure and an average time of 9 months between diagnosis and death. Australia has one of the highest rates of mesothelioma incidence in the world.
Coronary heart disease CHD and stroke are both chronic conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels. CHD is caused by a blockage in the arteries supplying blood to the heart. Stroke is caused by a blockage in, or rupture to and bleeding of an artery supplying blood to the brain. Many of the risk factors for CHD and stroke can be modified through lifestyle changes and there are also treatment options available for these conditions.
Mental illness affects individuals, families and carers. It also has a far-reaching influence on society as a whole, through issues such as poverty, unemployment and homelessness. In addition to the disease burden contributed by cancer, coronary heart disease and mental illness, an estimated:.
Smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol are two lifestyle factors that contribute to high rates of chronic conditions in Australia.
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7 ‘Women's’ Diseases Men Should Watch Out For
Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. The thyroid is a small gland that rests in the middle of the lower neck, where it produces hormones to control metabolism.
If it produces too much, hyperthyroidism results. Symptoms include:. Women are five to eight times more likely to have some form of thyroid disease than men, but men can still be affected. As more men feel the pressure to be thin and look good, more are falling victim to eating disorders. Only 10 to 15 percent of people with anorexia or bulimia are male , but the effects can be equally devastating.
Men also are less likely to seek treatment, leaving them more at risk for complications such as:. Athletes, obese boys, homosexual and transgender men, and those who are anxious or have perfectionist personalities are more at risk. Bladder infections are much more common in women, but men can get them, too — particularly men with an enlarged prostate , kidney stones , or an abnormal narrowing of the urethra.
Treatment involves antibiotics and is typically very effective, but men need to be aware of the symptoms. Women are two times more likely than men to be diagnosed with depression, but that may be because their symptoms are different.
Women may feel sad and cry more often, whereas men are more likely to show anger, irritation, frustration, and discouragement. Men may turn to drugs or alcohol, or engage in risky behavior. They are also more likely to complete suicide if they try it. Because of these differences, many men go undiagnosed.
Without treatment , depression is likely to worsen.
About 90 percent of those diagnosed with lupus are women, but this autoimmune disorder can also strike men. The disease is treated similarly in both genders.